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The Main Technology Of Laser Cutting Machine
Nov 13, 2017

1. Vaporization cutting.

In the laser gasification cutting process, the material surface temperature rises to the boiling point temperature speed is so fast, enough to avoid the heat conduction caused by the melting, so some materials evaporate into steam disappeared, some materials as a spray from the bottom of the slit is auxiliary gas flow blown away. In this case, very high laser power is required.

In order to prevent material vapor condensation to the slit wall, the thickness of the material must not greatly exceed the diameter of the laser beam. The processing is therefore only suitable for applications where there is a need to avoid the removal of molten material. The process is actually used only in small areas of iron base alloys.

The processing can not be used, such as wood and some ceramics, and so on, those without melting state is therefore less likely to let the material vapor condensation of the material. In addition, these materials usually reach thicker incisions. In laser gasification cutting, the optimal beam focusing depends on the material thickness and beam quality. The laser power and the gasification heat have only a certain effect on the optimal focus position. In the case of a certain thickness of the plate, the maximum cutting speed is inversely proportional to the gasification temperature of the material. The required laser power density is greater than 108w/cm2 and depends on the material, cutting depth and beam focus position. In the case of a certain thickness of the plate, it is assumed that there is sufficient laser power and the maximum cutting speed is limited by the velocity of the gas jet.

2. Melting and cutting.

In the laser melting and cutting, the workpiece is partially melted and sprayed with the molten material by means of air flow. Because the transfer of material occurs only in its liquid condition, the process is known as laser melting and cutting.

The laser beam is equipped with a high purity inert cutting gas that prompts the molten material to leave the slit, and the gas itself does not participate in cutting. Laser-Fused cutting can get a higher cutting speed than gasification cutting. The energy required for gasification is usually higher than the energy required to melt the material. In laser melting and cutting, the laser beam is only partially absorbed. The maximum cutting speed increases with the increase of the laser power, and decreases with the increase of sheet thickness and the melting temperature of the material. In the case of a certain laser power, the limiting factor is the pressure at the slit and the heat conduction rate of the material. Laser melting and cutting for iron materials and titanium metal can be no oxidation incision. The laser power density, which produces molten but not gasification, is between 104w/cm2~105 $literal for steel materials.

3. Oxidation and melting cutting (laser flame cutting).

Melting and cutting generally use inert gas, if replaced with oxygen or other active gas, the material is ignited under the irradiation of laser beam, and oxygen occurs in a violent chemical reaction to produce another heat source, so that the material further heating, called oxidation and melting cutting.

Because of this effect, for the same thickness of structural steel, the cutting rate can be obtained by using this method is higher than that of the fused cutting. On the other hand, the method is more likely to have a worse quality than a fused cut. In fact it produces a wider slit, apparent roughness, increased heat-affected zone, and poorer edge quality. Laser Flame cutting is not good for machining precision models and sharp corners (there is a danger of burning off the cusp). Pulse-mode lasers can be used to limit thermal effects, and the laser power determines the cutting speed. In the case of a certain laser power, the limiting factor is the supply of oxygen and the heat conduction rate of the material.

4. Control fracture cutting.

For brittle materials which are easily damaged by heat, the high speed and controllable cut off by laser beam heating is called control fracture cutting. The main content of this cutting process is: laser beam heating brittle material small area, causing the region's large thermal gradient and serious mechanical deformation, resulting in the formation of cracks in the material. As long as the equilibrium heating gradient is maintained, the laser beam can lead the crack to be produced in any direction needed.